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The Living Universe

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

THE PRINCIPLE OF CIRCLON SYNCHRONICITY

The fundamental assumption of Circlon Synchronicity is that protons and electrons exist in the universe and they are exactly what we measure them to be.

Circlon Synchronicity is a conceptual model of mass, space, time and gravity that is based on complimentary principles of measurement that describe the interactions of two fundamental mechanical particles of matter moving with three dimensions of momentum within three dimensions of time. Circlon Synchronicity is organized and explained within nine basic principles of physical measurement.

Fundamental Particles of Matter

Measurements show electrons and protons are the only absolutely stable and eternal primary particles of matter and that they both have a circlon shape. Photons and neutrinos are the only stable secondary fundamental particles of matter. The structures of these particles were once part of the structures of electrons and protons.

A photon is a matter/antimatter pair made from equal pieces of an electron and proton. A photon can exist as a linear mass particle moving at the speed of light or as a circlon shaped mass particle forming a mechanical link between a proton and electron within an atom.

A neutrino/antineutrino pair is broken off when an electron is captured by a proton and a hydrogen atom is transformed into a neutron. The neutrino is emitted out into the void but the antineutrino stays within the neutron as a “bolt” to hold the electron within the proton. A neutrino is a piece of a proton and an antineutrino is a piece of an electron. In a neutron decay, the electron and proton split apart when the antineutrino holding then together is emitted into the void.

All four of these basic stable particles of matter are complex coil structures composed of cosmic string that has mass and is wound into circlon shapes. The whole particle zoo, both stable and unstable, from the neutron to the uranium atom, are all composites of two or more of these four fundamental circlon shaped particles and can, in principle, be broken down into their individual components.

Three Dimensions of Momentum

Momentum is the absolute and conserved one dimensional quantity of motion for a single body of mass.

Angular momentum is the relative and conserved two dimensional rotational motion within the structure of matter and photons and between any two external bodies of mass.

Gravitational momentum is the absolute and conserved three dimensional upward motion of the earth’s surface and all other bodies of mass.

The Three Dimensions of Time

Clocks measure time with the three distinct and separate time flows of linear photon inertial time, rotational inertial time and gravitational time.

Nine Basic Principles of Physical Measurement

The evolution of the Living Universe is defined by interactions between four particles of matter with three dimensions of motion and three dimensions of time. This living transformation evolved in terms of the following nine principles of non-field experimental measurement.

photon energy

1. The Principle of Absolute Photon Rest

All photons are measured to move at exactly C relative to the same absolute inertial reference frame of photon rest.

All photons move at C relative to photon rest and at (C+/- V) relative to moving bodies. These relative motions between photons and moving bodies always produce Doppler shifts in the photons.

All other particles and bodies of matter have an exact velocity relative to the photon rest frame that is less than C. All bodies have only rest mass when located at photon rest.

The kinetic energy (E=MV2/2) of a body’s motion relative to photon rest gives the body a quantity of kinetic mass (M = E/C2). All electrons or protons are measured to have identical masses because they were all created at photon rest and the mass increases caused by their subsequent motions are equal for all particles in a given inertial reference frame. All moving protons or electrons have a different kinetic mass that changes with each change in motion but they all have identical masses when brought together in the same frame.

When a photon is emitted from a moving atom, it is emitted at photon rest. The photon is red or blue shifted by the motion of the atom but maintains its exact velocity of C relative to photon rest. The values of mass and wavelength for the photon remain unchanged as it travels through space but it will always be measured to have different values in any moving frame. A photon’s measured energy is increased or decreased by the relative kinetic energy of a moving observer.

Measurements of Doppler shifts within the vast numbers of the 2.7° Cosmic Blackbody Radiation photons show that our solar system is moving at about 375 km/sec relative to the common position of rest that is shared by all matter and all photons.

gravitational

2. The Principle of Gravitational Expansion

Gravity is an effect caused by the gradual and constant expansion of matter.

Measurements show that the increasing dimensions of large bodies of matter produce a three dimensional outward acceleration at their surfaces. This measurement is actually a deceleration that slows the surface of the body to a constant three dimensional upward surface velocity. The constant for gravitational force is measured to be the outward velocity of 9.2116 x 10-14 m/s at the Bohr Radius of the hydrogen atom. At the surface of the Earth this constant upward velocity is 11,189 km/sec. All of gravity’s phenomena can be explained in terms of these measurements.

Just as the direction of linear force is one dimensional and the direction of centripetal force is two dimensional, the true direction of gravitational force is three dimensional. Although the idea of gravitational force has been around for hundreds of years, until now, no one has ever allowed themselves to consider the true direction of this force. Gravity is a three directional force of matter rather than a one dimensional force between matter.

When we measure the force of gravity with an accelerometer, we find that the direction of gravitational force is not down, as is commonly assumed, but rather up because the direction of the measurable acceleration is up. Even though a falling body may appear to the casual observer to accelerate downward, there is no way that this conclusion can be verified with an accelerometer. All that we can actually measure is the surface of the Earth accelerating upward toward a stationary “falling” body. The true mechanism of gravity isn’t very difficult to figure out. When we just take simple measurements of gravity we find that the cause of gravity is not an “attractive force” or a “curvature of space”. The true precisely measured cause of the Earth’s gravity is the upward acceleration of the Earth’s surface. The only possible cause for this upward motion of the Earth’s surface is a constant expansion of the matter within the Earth’s interior. This constant upward acceleration can be translated into a constant upward surface velocity that is equal to escape velocity.

The actual mechanics of gravitational expansion are basically the mirror image of the mechanics of Einstein’s General Relativity. In both General Relativity and the principle of gravitational expansion, gravity is the result of changes in the geometry of mass, space and time. In General Relativity gravity is caused by the curvature of space and time and in the Living Universe gravity is caused by the curvature of mass and time.

To put a body in orbit from the surface of Earth, it is necessary to use two forces at right angles to one another. These two forces are quite distinct from one another in that one causes the body to accelerate and the other force decelerates the body at right angles to the other force. The upward force actually decelerates the body to a lower surface velocity on a path away from Earth’s center and the sideways force accelerates the body on a path parallel to Earth’s surface. When the velocities produced by these forces are balanced, the body will travel on a circular path around Earth. A circular orbit is a perfect balance between three velocities. The escape velocity at a point of orbit, the orbital velocity and the upward surface velocity at Earth’s surface. The interaction of these three velocities keeps the body in a circular orbit around the Earth without the need of a “force” to maintain it in the proper position. There are no forces exchanged between the earth and an orbiting body. The combination the orbiting body’s two velocities balance the upward velocity of Earth’s surface to keep the body in a circular orbit. The orbiting body is simply moving away from the Earth at the same rate that Earth is expanding toward it.

3. The Principle of the Circlon Shape

The mechanical structure of atoms is based on the circlon shape of the proton and electron.

The circlon is a precise and very complex triple torus shape that can for most purposes be pictured in the mind as a hollow donut. Measurements of protons, electrons and hydrogen atoms show that their parameters of mass, energy, wavelength, Bohr radius, fine structure, and radiation spectra require mechanical particles with a circlon shape. Atoms are formed when electrons and protons are held together by the dynamic motions of their circlon shapes. Measurements of the 282 stable atomic nuclear isotopes demonstrate that all of these nuclear structures can be physically assembled from the circlon shapes of the protons, neutrons and mesons.

circlon constant

4. The Principle of Photon Mass

All experimental measurements of photons can be used to determine that they have both a dimensional shape and a mass.

A photon’s kinetic energy is E = MC2/2 + I ω2/2 = MC2. Its momentum is p = MC. Its wavelength is λ = 2ϖlω/MC. Its angular momentum that is the same value for all photons is Iω = MλC/2ϖ.

A photon with mass means that there is never a transformation between mass and energy and that both the mass and the energy in the universe are eternal and remain constant and absolutely conserved. Mass and energy are complimentary and inseparable components of matter and photons that coexist together like the two sides of a coin.

Kinetic energy E=MV2/2 is merely a measure of the relative motion between two bodies of mass and does not ever exist separate from bodies of mass.

Photon energy E=MC2 is the measure of the absolute motions of the photon relative to two dimensions of absolute space.

The photon is not an “energy particle”. It is a particle of matter with mass and energy. Its energy is composed of two different kinds of kinetic energy. The relative energy of the linear motion of its mass at c and the absolute rotational kinetic energy of the spin of its mass at C.

radiation

5. The Principle of Matter and Photon Continuity

The proton and electron are the eternal particles of matter that can unite to produce eternal photons.

The primary intrinsic difference between the Living Universe and the Standard Model of Physics is in the concept of continuity between matter and photons. In the standard model, matter and photons come and go into and out of existence in a continual dance where they transform back and forth into one another. Energy becomes matter and matter becomes energy.

In the Living Universe, matter and energy are eternal and unchanging. Every proton and electron is an equal part of the initial matter-antimatter pair that began the Living Universe. Also, the mass of every photon has its origin with this beginning particle. Both matter and photons are eternal. When a photon travels unchanged across the universe for billions of years, it does not lose its ultimate identity when it is finally absorbed by an atom and becomes a circlon. A circlon is just a stationary photon. It remains intact as the physical link between a proton and electron until it is re-emitted. It may have lost or picked up a little mass from the atom, but it is basically the same photon ready to travel through space for another billion years. In the Living Universe, mass and energy are constant and there is never any transformation between them. An atom may gain or lose mass by the absorption or emission of a photon but total mass of the system remains constant both before and after these interactions.

time

6. The Principle of 3 Dimensional Time Measurement

Measurements with atomic clocks show that there are three distinct dimensions to the flow of time.

Photon time is one dimensional time based on the speed of light. Light years and pulsar bursts are examples of units of photon time.

Rotational Inertial time is time based the two dimensional rotation of mass and is based on the conservation of angular momentum. The the rotation of the earth. the vibration of the Cesium-133 atom and the ticking of a Harrison chronometer are units of inertial time.

Gravitational time is the very slow absolute time based on the 3 dimensional upward flow of gravitational motion. The ticking of a grandfather clock and the yearly circling of the sun are unit of gravitational time.

High speed measurements demonstrating the Lorentz Transformation shows that a body’s mass is increased when it is accelerated and then decreased when it is decelerated relative to the position of photon rest. Careful measurements with atomic clocks can monitor these changes in the absolute values for mass due to either a body’s inertial motion or its gravitational motion. Clock rates must change to conserve angular momentum as a clock’s mass is changed by changes in its absolute momentum.

At a position of rest, all three of the different clocks measuring the three dimensions of time run at the same rate. Their rates diverge when accelerated to high velocity with gravity clocks running faster and inertial clocks running slower. The interchange between these complimentary time flows can be demonstrated by the variations in very accurate clocks put into different orbits. Inertial time clocks are slowed by orbital velocity and are also slowed by gravitational surface velocity. In the low space station orbit, inertial clocks run slower than they do on earth and in the much higher GPS orbit they run faster than sea level clocks.

Gravity pendulum clocks run slower on Mount Everest than they do at the Dead Sea but Inertial clocks run faster on Mount Everest an slower at the Dead Sea.

 

7. The Principle of Mechanical Interactions

There is only one physical interaction in nature and it is the common sense event of one body mechanically touching another. Force equals Mass times Acceleration.

In the Living Universe, there is no “action at a distance”. There are only three measurable dimensions. There is no aether and there are none of the specialized forms of aether called fields. There is no space-time either curved or flat. There are no impinging gravitons or any other kinds of virtual particles. There are no non-material wave interactions. All quantum waves are purely harmonic motions within the physical structure and shape of matter. All interactions between atoms and photons are purely mechanical.

The long accepted five “field interactions” of physics are all bogus, because they are all really just mechanical in nature. There is no “unified field” solution to physics. There is only a mechanical non-field solution.

The strong interaction is a kind of “nuts and bolts” phenomenon that mechanically holds protons and neutrons together.

The weak force is very similar in nature except on a higher level of scale. The weak force is the way that electrons and neutrinos are mechanically held inside of protons to form neutrons.

The electromagnetic force results from the physical touching and the pushing and pulling between the expanding external circlon shaped charge coils of protons and electrons.

Gravity is simply an effect caused by slowly expanding matter. The surface of Earth expands upward and hits stationary “falling” bodies. In the Living Universe, the earth falls up!

The so called Dark Energy interaction is not an outward acceleration. It was simply proposed by cosmologists who didn’t understand that the decreasing mass of the electron caused distant supernova explosions to be less energetic than the supernova explosions of today.

radiation

8. The Principle of Electron/Proton Mass Ratio Transformation

The evolution of matter is driven by the gradual decrease in the mass of the electron over cosmological time.

Throughout the history of the Living Universe, the mass of the electron, relative to the proton, has been gradually decreasing, while its size (Compton wavelength and classical electron radius) has been increasing at an inversely proportionate rate. This changing relationship between electron and proton gradually changes the properties and dynamics of the hydrogen atom in particular and of all the other elements in general. These changes in the electron/proton mass and size ratios also cause changes in the “constants” of nature dependent on these ratios such as the Fine Structure constant (a) and the Bohr radius (ao). As the electron’s mass decreases, the ionization energy of hydrogen increases and the photon spectra of the other elements are shifted to shorter wavelengths.

The Bohr radius decreases and the fine structure increases as the electron’s mass decreases. The Bohr radius is basically the distance between the proton and electron in the hydrogen atom and the fine structure “constant” is the internal ratio between the circlon shaped coil structures of the hydrogen atom. It is these two parameters that determine the physical size and shape of atoms as well as the wavelengths of the photons that they emit.

Gravitational time is itself a duality between the slightly different gravitational motion rates between electrons and protons. Measurements deep into the cosmos show that photons emitted by atoms in the distant past have much longer wavelengths that the photons emitted by those same atoms today. The cause of this phenomenon is that the electron has been gradually growing in size and losing mass over cosmological time. In the past, these more massive electrons caused atoms to emit their characteristic spectrum of photons with longer wavelengths. The complete evolution of the Living Universe can be demonstrated by extrapolating the changing mass of the electron back to that point in the past to where the masses of the proton and electron were equal. Using the circlon shape as a template, it is possible to calculate the exact point in the Living Universe when the 2.7° CBR was formed as a fundamental constant of matter.

electron

9. The Principle of Matter/Antimatter Charge Conservation

The universe contains equal numbers of particles of matter and antimatter with equal numbers of positive and negative charges.

Experiments show that particles of positively charged matter and negatively charged particles of antimatter are always either produced or destroyed together. This means that the number of positive charges in the universe is exactly equal to the number of negative charges. It then follows that the protons were once the antiparticle to the electrons. When particles and antiparticles annihilate with one another they transform into a pair of photons that are each composed of one half particle and one/half antiparticle. The photon’s two mass components can then divide into a matter-antimatter pair with opposite charges.

The Living Universe is made up exclusively of particle/antiparticle pairs. The universe always contained at least one particle/antiparticle pair. The universe of today is the result of first the reproduction and then the continuing evolution of that original pair. For every particle with a positive charge there is an antiparticle with a negative charge. In high energy events, particles can be created or destroyed but only in conjunction with their antiparticles. This process causes the number of protons and electrons in the universe to slightly fluctuate back and forth from their exact creation number of (2257). In the same way, the numbers of positive and negative charges in the universe stays very close to (2257) and are always in equal numbers.

Today, in the Living Universe, the particles are the protons and their antiparticles are the electrons. Neutrons and hydrogen atoms are both examples of particle-antiparticle pairs. Both are made up of different configurations of a proton and an electron. These two bodies are the basic building blocks of all the elements’ stable and unstable isotopes.

The Measurable Parameters of Space, Time, Mass and Energy

The measured quantities for mass, space, time, and energy, within the universe remain separate and constant over the passage of time.

Space

Space is the negative reality. If space really did have a positive existence, what would we expect to find in its absence?

Space is infinite and does not bend. It is not a “zero point quantum vacuum” with its virtual particles winking in and out. To give it a dimension you could say that it is nothing cubed. The only tangible property of space is its infinity. The very most that you can say about space is that it is an idea that is impossible to imagine because of its infinity. The concept of three dimensional space can be very useful in measuring and calculating, but in reality, space can only be perceived as an infinite number of one dimensional momentum vectors. Local two dimensional space can be perceived as angular momentum. The only three dimensional perception of space is the gravitational expansion of matter.

Time

Times are three different ideas for measuring momenta.

While space is a tangible void, time has no reality outside of a consciousness that is actively perceiving inertial motion. Time is simply the idea used to quantify the constant relationship between Mass and Space called motion.

A body in motion is carried along by its own momentum. There is no substance or field called “time” that pushes it along. It is momentum, and not “time”, that takes us from the past to the future. Clocks do not measure “time”. They monitor the conserved relationship (T = MS/p) between mass and space called momentum (p = MS/T). We always use momentum to measure time and there can be no time without momentum. To record intervals of “time”, a clock uses one of three types of momentum. A clock measures either the momentum of photons, angular momentum or gravitational momentum. To measure time accurately, a clock must only monitor one type of momentum. Time does not exist as a single physical entity. The idea of time is used to quantify momentum and with three types of momentum there three different and separate types of time flows.

Mass

Mass is the positive reality. We need no theory for mass. It is just what we measure.

Mass is the primary component of reality. It can only be quantified in terms of the negative reality of space and the virtual reality of time. The fundamental measure of mass in the universe is the photon.

Whereas space has no properties, mass is the only property. Mass is defined as resistance to change motion and it is the measurement of that resistance through force that defines space and time. Mass is a property of matter. Matter is mass with a shape. Too little can not be said about mass. Mass just is. It is the only metaphysical assumption that need be made to explain physics. We need not assume a physical existence for space or time but we must assume the physical existence of mass. The total mass of the universe is the same today as it has always been.

Momentum

Momentum is the motion of mass and is conserved in all interactions.

Momentum (p) is mass times space divided by time (p = MS/T). Any time a force (F = MS/T2) changes a body’s momentum an equal and opposite quantity of momentum is also changed. Momentum is conserved. Whenever a force is applied to change a body’s momentum, an equal quantity of momentum is applied to the force. A bullet’s momentum is equal to the momentum of the rifle’s recoil. The individual equal and opposite momenta of two lumps of clay moving toward one another cancel each other out when they collide and remain stuck together at rest with zero linear momentum. That momentum has been converted to the angular momentum of the heat generated by the collision.

All bodies in the universe have an exact and absolute quantity of momentum relative to photon rest. . When we measure a body’s momentum, it is relative to our surroundings but each body has a hidden absolute momentum that is measured relative to the photon rest. The energy inherent in this motion has mass but there is no way to measure the mass or energy of a moving body except by stopping it. We can’t stop it, because when we change its motion we can’t tell whether we are slowing it down or speeding it up.

Momentum is not to be confused with energy. Energy is an absolute component of momentum but momentum and energy are not proportional. A bullet and a recoiling rifle each have the same momentum but the bullet has far more energy that the rifle. The equal and opposite momenta of the colliding lumps of clay disappears to zero but the quantity of energy inherent in those momenta still exists as heat within the new lump of clay.

Energy

Energy is the substance of momentum. The energy inherent in a body’s momentum can be measured as mass.

Energy is the quantitative relationship between Mass, Space and Time. It is a property of Mass that can be defined as motion and that can always be broken down into E=MV2/2. Whereas a body’s momentum is linear and absolute in space and time, a body’s energy is absolute and non linear. A body’s energy is contained in both its linear and rotational motions. The energy of the universe is conserved as it is transformed from one form to another. The kinetic energy of the two lumps of clay colliding together remains constant in the heat and sound energy generated by the collision.

There is no transformation between mass and energy as is implied by the formula E =MC2. In the universe, the total individual quantities for mass and energy are constant. Energy has mass according to M=E/C2 but energy cannot be converted to mass because energy is mass. A pot of water heated on an electric stove gains mass that it takes away from the electricity. When a positron annihilates with an electron, the two photons produced each have masses equal to the electron or positron. In each of these photons, their mass and energy are equal according to E =MC2/2. The photon has two distinct types of energy. The kinetic energy of its motion at C along its vector and the rotational kinetic energy of its two mass particles spinning a C. Photons have a mass of M= E/C2 and an energy of E=MC2/2 + ω2/2 =MC2.

Matter is produced by the dividing of photons. A photon is a perfect union between a positive matter body and an exactly equal and opposite negative antimatter body. For example, when a positron and an electron annihilate, they combine together and then split into two x-ray photons. Each photon contains one-half of the electron’s negative matter and one-half of the positron’s positive matter, as well as, half of each particle’s mass. These two oppositely spinning, rope like, particles join together within the photon and move forward at C with an undulating wavelike motion that gives the photon it characteristic angular momentum. This is the source of the wave particle duality. The photon is a mass particle that moves through space with a wave-like motion.

When a gamma ray photon splits into a positron and an electron, an opposite process takes place. The negative matter particle and positive matter particle within the photon separate from one another to become equal and opposite positive and negative particles (positron and electron). In these transformations between matter and photons and back again, there is no change in mass. The photons from a electron-positron annihilation have exactly the same mass as the as the original particles.

When a body is accelerated relative to photon rest, its mass is increased with its increasing kinetic energy. This kinetic mass (kM) increases exponentially as the velocity approaches the speed of light according to kM = M/√1-V2/C2.

There is no transformation between mass, energy and photons. Photons have mass and it takes mass to make photons. Energy has mass and the mass of a photon’s energy is the photon’s mass.

The Nature of Force

Absolute Force equals mass times acceleration or deceleration or any combination of the two.

Force is the basic parameter of physical interaction. Newton first defined force as mass times acceleration (F = MA). Force always causes acceleration and acceleration is always the result of force. Any time the word “force” is used in a situation where no acceleration can be measured it is not a real force but rather a “force-like” event.

For Example, it is not possible to have two equal and opposite “forces” because no acceleration can be produced. Two equal and opposite forces would cancel each other. What you have is not a force but a tension. Tension is not force because it does not produce acceleration. A tension does not require energy and its measurement is not quantifiable as force. For example, the tension on a compressed spring is not a force because there is no acceleration to measure and because the static tension on the spring tells us nothing about the quantity of force that was required to compress it, or the force that is measured when a particular spring is released. Consider two coil springs that are identical except that one is twice as long as the other. Now, if we compress both of these springs to the same tension we cannot equate these two equal tensions as equal forces because, when released, the long spring will produce twice as much force (and energy) as the short spring. Therefore, a stationary compressed spring does not exert a force because it doesn’t produce acceleration or require energy.

No Centrifugal Force

Centrifugal force is a force in name only and cannot be regarded as a real force because it is, by definition, the reciprocal of centripetal force. What is called centrifugal “force” is actually the inward acceleration produced by centripetal force. Centripetal force is a real force because it produces an inward acceleration of mass (mass x acceleration) that is the definitive measurement of a force. Centrifugal force is not a force. It is a mass times acceleration. It is a mass being accelerated by a force. There is no measurement that can be made of centrifugal force because there is no outward acceleration to measure. The only thing that can be measured is the inward acceleration produced by centripetal force. Force can only be measured with an accelerometer and an accelerometer only registers force. In the case of the accelerometer readings produced by the constant change in direction of a rotating body, half of the reading is acceleration and the other half is deceleration. A rotating body is constantly speeding up and slowing down at the same rate and thus maintains a constant rotational velocity.

The Absolute Direction of Force

We can always measure the true direction and magnitude of a force. What we can’t do is to separate the mixture of absolute acceleration and deceleration produced by every force.

The distinction between force and acceleration with centripetal force and centrifugal acceleration is absolute. The direction of centripetal force is always towards the center of gravity of the rotating system. In contrast to linear motion, rotational motion is always absolute because it is two dimensional.

However when we measure rectilinear force it is best to consider the forces as relative and not consider the distinction between the true direction of acceleration or deceleration relative to absolute rest.

In fact, the proper definition of force is; Force equals mass times acceleration or deceleration or any combination of the two. In practice, with linear change in motion, it is not possible to make an absolute distinction between acceleration and deceleration even though relative to photon rest a true value must exist. Virtually every measurement of acceleration has components of both acceleration and deceleration that are impossible to separate without looking to the universe at large.

For example, it is easiest to think that a railroad locomotive exerts a force that accelerates a train the same amount in either a westerly or easterly direction. However, in the real world of absolute motion there is an absolute distinction between acceleration and deceleration. In the case of the locomotive accelerating the train toward the east, the direction of the force is to the east and the train’s absolute motion is increased. However, when the train goes west, the direction of the force is west but in this interaction the force of the locomotive is actually decelerating the train to a lower velocity relative to the earth’s rotation.

In this case with the train, we are certainly justified to consider the change in motion to be relative to a stationary Earth. However, any absolute changes in motion can only be measured relative to the photons of the 2.7° CBR.

In any interaction between a force and an accelerating or decelerating mass their is always an absolute and true direction of force that is the direction that energy needs to accelerate or decelerate the mass. However, in the real world of measurement the observer is usually justified in using an accelerometer reading as the direction of force and not making any distinction between acceleration and deceleration. There is absolutely no way to locally measure the difference between acceleration and deceleration. Observers can choose the reference frame that best serves their purposes.

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Living Universe Book

The Living Universe Book

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.