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The Living Universe

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

Gravities of Newton and Einstein

In Newton’s and Einstein’s idea, gravity is a metaphysical infinity in which no directly measurable physical mechanism is ever offered to explain just what makes gravity work.

To simply explain exactly how gravity works using either curved space or gravitational attraction has been beyond anyone’s abilities. You can describe gravity mathematically but no one can explain the actual physical way by which the mathematics can connect gravity to the universe, except in the most general of terms. There is no way to get past the great oxymoron of gravitational theory: “Action at a distance”. The non-local nature of gravity is hard to comprehend when we consider that each body must be actively connected to all other bodies across the whole universe.

By contrast, the purely local principle of gravitational expansion requires no interaction between bodies other than physical contact. Gravitating bodies are not pulled or pushed together by unseen forces. They simply grow toward one another until their outer surfaces come into contact. After this initial contact, the gravitating bodies continue to push on one another with gravitational force.

The idea of expanding matter as the cause of gravity is so easy to understand that few can believe that such a simple and local explanation of gravity could possibly be true. The idea of gravitational attraction that has long been considered as the greatest of all metaphysical mysteries. Gravitational expansion has no metaphysical assumptions and can be seen as the simplest of physical mechanisms.

Even though gravitational expansion might be very hard on your intuitive belief system, it is easy to see that the idea can work well at explaining simple and fundamental gravitational interactions like the surface of the earth accelerating upward to meet a stationary “falling” object. While expanding gravity may be exceedingly easy to understand, it is equally hard to believe. No one wants to imagine that their body is continually getting larger and larger. But is it easier to believe that all bodies in the universe are connected to all others with individual and infinite strings of force?

General Relativity vs Gravitational Expansion

Gravitational expansion is like a mirror image of General Relativity. Both theories explain gravity in terms of the changing geometry of mass, space and time. In General relativity theory, gravity results from the non-intuitive changing dimensions or “curving” of space-time. In the principle of gravitational expansion, gravity occurs with the constantly changing geometry of matter and time. Since both ideas begin with the equivalence of gravity and inertia as their fundamental component, it is easy to see why the calculations and predictions for both gravitational attraction and gravitational expansion are nearly always identical.

In general relativity, space and time are the primary components of mass and gravity is the interaction of this space-time with mass. In the principle of gravitational expansion mass is the primary reality and space and time are the ideas used to connect mass with gravity. In general relativity, gravity is caused by the curving motion of space-time relative to mass and in gravitational expansion gravity is the curving motion of mass-time relative to space.

From the standpoint of philosophy in general and the philosophy of Occam’s Razor in particular, the functional simplicity of the principle of gravitational expansion is far superior to the mind numbing complexity of other gravitational theories. It can be stated that the principle of gravitational expansion is not even a theory because it makes no hypothesis. It simply takes the measured upward acceleration (9.8 m/sec2) of the earth’s surface at face value. No theory is needed to explain these measurements unless we try to reverse them and insist in believing, as Ptolemy did, that the earth can’t move. Rather than theorise about gravity, we simply measure it and what we measure it to be is an upward force.

Gravity is a completely local effect caused by the gradual and constant expansion of matter. It can be quantified as an outward velocity from the Bohr radius. Gravity’s only non-local characteristic is the way that this constant expansion proceeds with perfect synchronicity throughout the whole universe. Gravitational motion is the true measure of absolute time and gravitational clocks measure time as a constant. The time measured by inertial clocks is altered by the motion of the clock due to its changes in mass. The rate of a body’s gravitational expansion proceeds at exactly the same rate no matter what its absolute velocity through space.

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Living Universe Book

The Living Universe Book

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.