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The Living Universe

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

Three Measurable Physical Dimensions of Space and Time

The three dimensions of space and time are momentum, angular momentum and the three dimensional momentum of gravity.

The first principle in the development of any theory to explain reality is the experimental imperative. Theory must only be created to account for the results of experimental measurement. A theory cannot be created in the absence of experimental fact. Theory is sought to explain an experiment. Experiments do not explain theory. Simple exa

Simple examples of this principle of measurement are the theories that propose many different dimensions of space. Intuitively, it would seem that space has only three dimensions. This idea of space was quantified into three coordinates by De Cartes. He did not actually measure a third dimension. De Cartes just imagined what a third dimension would be like if it could be measured and then illustrated his idea with drawings and equations. Since space is a non-physical idea

Since space is a non-physical idea, it can only be identified by motion and quantified by change in motion. Space s=pt/m is identified by momentum p=ms/t and is measured by acceleration a=ms/t2.

To measure a one-dimensional space we use the measure of photon momentum. Photons show that there are a potentially infinite of one-dimensional space vectors. Each photon’s momentum carries it through its own unique one-dimensional space with at the constant motion of C.

Two dimensional space is demonstrated by the measure of rotational motion and quantified by angular momentum. The measurement process is only capable of measuring inertial motion in either one dimensional space or two dimensional space.

We can measure one dimensional space with momentum and two dimensional space with angular momentum but Descartes’ third dimension of space was just an unmeasurable inert and infinite void. It played no part in any one or two-dimensional measurements. Descartes did not believe that there were any three-dimensional phenomena by which his third dimension could be quantified. Nobody wanted to believe that there could be such a thing as three-dimensional momentum.

Three Dimensions of Time

Just as there are three dynamic dimensions of space to quantify the three dimensions of momentum, there are three different kinds of time used to measure each.

The First dimension of time is linear motion like the speed of photons each traveling in their own one-dimensional space.

The second dimension of time is rotational motion like the spin of Earth or the spin within a cesium atom.

The third dimension of time is the three dimensional motion of gravitational expansion. These three separate time flows are equivalent at any point in space but they diverge from one another with changes in momentum. Each kind of time is measured by a different kind of clock. The rates of these different clocks change in different ways with changes in momentum.

Three Dimensional Gravitational Motion

The gravitational expansion of matter is measured to be three-dimensional momentum.

Theories for a third dimension of space are usually created ad hoc, without any kind of underlying experimental observational requirements. Earth’s upward acceleration of gravity Gravity is the only natural phenomenon that is measured as a three dimensional momentum geometry.

The third dimension of space was always just an imaginary concept that had never been experimentally verified. Belief in a third dimension of space is so strong that it is not tested. We might say that we can “see” the third dimension of space simply by looking out into the stars but in reality, all that we ever really see are photons moving along their one dimensional vectors. The first two dimensions are dynamic but the third dimension was usually considered to be inert and unmoving. Einstein just skipped over the third dimension and then invented a fourth dimension to explain gravity.

By making simple measurements, it is easily determined that gravity is indeed an example of three dimensional motion. Gravity is quantified as three dimensional momentum. Gravitational momentum verifies the reality of the third dimension of space. From this measurement, we determine that the outward gravitational motion of the earth occurs within the third dimension of space. There is no need to propose a fourth dimension since the third dimension can now be measured.

This new third dimension does not have a physical reality separate from matter. It is still just an inert imaginary setting within which gravitational motion occurs. Gravitational momentum occurs wholly within the dimensions of matter. Space has no active role. What “curves” is not space-time but matter-time. Gravity is not caused by a four-dimensional spacetime continuum. Gravity is caused by the inertial dynamics of matter and it is measured relative too a third dimension of space that occupies the structure of matter. Gravity is just a very slow three-dimensional motion occurring within the interior of matter.

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Living Universe Book

The Living Universe Book

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.